Testicular Cancer

Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Testicular cancer is a disease in which cancerous cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles.

Germ cells within the testicles produce young sperm that travel through a network of tubes into the epididymis, a long coil, where the sperm are stored in order to mature. Almost all testicular cancers start in the germ cells. The two main types of tumors that form from testicular germ cell are seminomas and nonseminomas. Nonseminoma tumors tend to grow slower and more contained. Seminoma tumors typically grow more quickly and farther spread.

The testicular form of cancer is most commonly found in men ages 20 to 35 years old. Continue reading to learn more about common risk factors, symptoms and treatment.

Causes and Risk Factors

Always keep in mind that risk factors do not guarantee cancer but serve as possible warning signs. Scheduling a visit with your doctor should be your first step if you have any concerns. Risk factors for testicular cancer may include:

  • An undescended testicle.
  • Abnormal development of the testicles.
  • Family history of testicular cancer (especially in a father or brother).
  • Caucasian ancestry.

Signs and Symptoms

Signs of testicular cancer may include the following:

  • A lump or swelling in one or both testicles.
  • Change in feel of the testicle(s).
  • Dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin.
  • Pain or discomfort in the scrotum.

Schedule a visit if you are experiencing any of these symptoms and have concerns. The following tests and procedures may be performed if testicular cancer is suspected:

  • Physical exam and personal/familial history
  • Ultrasound exam


After the testicular cancer is diagnosed, your doctor will discuss the possible treatment options with you. Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors that may be at play, treatment options for testicular cancer can typically include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy (chemo)
  • High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant

In some cases, more than one of type of treatment may be needed. Your doctor will have an open conversation with you to discuss the best options for you and what side effects may come along with it. When it comes to testicular cancer, time is the best weapon. If you feel you may be at risk, give us a call today.

Advanced Urology Centers of New York – Manhattan / Lexington Avenue

Dr. Jed Kaminetsky, M.D. is a Clinical Assistant Professor at NYU Medical Center and a Board Certified Urologist. His work has been published in many medical journals which led to a nationwide recognition and development of various treatment schemes for patients with sexual and erectile dysfunction.

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